CARNEGIE CLASSIFICATION CODE DEFINITIONS - The 1994 Carnegie Classification includes all colleges and universities in the United States that are degree-granting and accredited by an agency recognized by the U. S. Secretary of Education.

Classifications of Constituent Institutions of the University of North Carolina

Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges I: These institutions are primarily undergraduate colleges with major emphasis on baccalaureate degree programs. They award 40 percent or more of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields and are restrictive in admissions. Includes UNC-Asheville.

Baccalaureate Colleges II: These institutions are primarily undergraduate colleges with major emphasis on baccalaureate degree programs. They award less than 40 percent of their baccalaureate degrees in liberal arts fields or are less restrictive in admissions. Includes Elizabeth City State and Winston-Salem State.

Doctoral Universities I: These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs and are committed to graduate education through the doctorate. They award at least 40 doctoral degrees annually in five or more disciplines. Includes UNC-Greensboro.

Master's (Comprehensive) Colleges and Universities I: These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs and are committed to graduate education through the master's degree. They award 40 or more master's degrees annually in three or more disciplines. Includes Appalachian, East Carolina, Fayetteville State, NC A&T, NC Central, UNC-Charlotte, UNC-Pembroke, UNC-Wilmington and Western Carolina.

Research Universities I: These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs, are committed to graduate education through the doctorate, and give high priority to research. They award 50 or more doctoral degrees each year. In addition, they receive annually $40 million or more in federal support. Includes NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill.

Specialized Institutions: Schools of art, music and design - Institutions in this category award most of their bachelor's or graduate degrees in art, music, design, architecture or some combination of such fields. Includes NC School of the Arts.

CLERICAL AND SECRETARIAL - All persons whose assignments typically are associated with clerical activities or are specifically of a secretarial nature.

EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL - All persons whose assignments require primary responsibility for management of the institution. Examples include: Chancellor, Vice-Chancellors, Deans, Directors of divisions and non-academic units.

EXPENDITURES - University expenditures are defined as the outflow of resources in support of the ongoing operations and mission of the University. For financial reporting purposes, University expenditures are classified according to functional categories wherein the resources will be utilized. Functional categories and a brief definition are as follows.

Instruction: Expenditures directly related to instruction or "teaching" for all University courses or programs. Includes expenditures for regular term, summer term, and extension instruction.

Institutional support: Expenditures for all goods and services in support of day-to-day operational support of the institution.

Physical plant: Expenditures for the upkeep and maintenance of University facilities.

Scholarships and Fellowships: Expenditures resulting from scholarships and fellowships provided to students.

Academic support & Libraries: Expenditures for all goods and services supporting academic activities other than instruction; and expenditures supporting the university library.

Public service: Expenditures resulting from University programs and activities which focus upon providing services primarily for the benefit of persons external to the University.

Student services: Expenditures for all non-instructional activities and programs whose primary purpose is directed toward student campus life.

Organized research: Expenditures directly related to University recognized research, typically through faculty and staff research activities.

Transfers: The movement of funds between university accounts to meet expenditures.

EXTENSION CREDIT HOUR - A credit value of an extension course. Extension courses are usually taught off-campus to serve a special group. Extension credit hours are not included in the total credit hours generated for state funding purposes. A limited number of extension credit hours may be applied toward a degree at Western Carolina University. (See student credit hour and resident credit hour.)

FIRST-TIME FRESHMAN - A degree-seeking undergraduate student who has not enrolled in a prior semester either at Western Carolina University or at another university or college after high school graduation; a student who graduates from high school in the spring or summer and enrolls either here or at another college or university during that summer and enrolls at Western Carolina University for the next fall semester will be classified a "first-time freshman" during that fall semester. (See new undergraduate transfer.)

FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT STUDENTS - The number of students determined by adding the number of full-time students and a proportion of the part-time students. The full-time equivalent (FTE) student number in the University of North Carolina is determined by the following formula:








12 or more credit hours


9 or more credit hours


9-11 credit hours


6-8 credit hours


6-8 credit hours


3-5 credit hours


0-5 credit hours


0-2 credit hours

FULL-TIME GRADUATE - A graduate student who has scheduled nine (9) or more credit hours for that semester.

FULL-TIME UNDERGRADUATE - An undergraduate who has scheduled twelve (12) or more credit hours for that semester.

INSTRUCTIONAL FACULTY - Employees whose specific assignment is customarily made for the purpose of teaching and/or research, as based on Occupational Activities Categories, not budgeted FTE.

LOWER-LEVEL CREDIT - Credit hours generated in 100-299 numbered courses. The lower level courses refer to freshmen and sophomore level courses.

NEW FRESHMAN - See first-time freshman.

NEW UNDERGRADUATE TRANSFER STUDENT - A new student at Western Carolina University who has previously enrolled at another university or college after high school graduation and prior to the first enrollment at WCU; students who transfer to WCU during the previous summer school are classified as new transfer students that next fall semester. (See first-time freshmen.)

PELL GRANT PROGRAM - The Pell Grant Program provides eligible undergraduate postsecondary students grant assistance with demonstrated financial need to help meet educational expenses.

PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM (Formerly National Direct Student Loans) - This program provides low interest loans to eligible postsecondary students (undergraduate, graduate, or professional) with demonstrated financial need to help meet educational expenses.

PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES - Persons whose assignments require a baccalaureate degree or its equivalent who are not reported in the "Executive, Administrative, and Managerial" or "Instructional Faculty" categories. Examples include librarians, counselors, computer analysts, etc., who do not hold administrative positions or have faculty rank.

RESIDENT CENTERS - Western Carolina University has two locations where course credit hours are counted as resident credit hours. These are WCU courses on the UNC-Asheville Campus and the Cherokee Center. Other areas such as Hickory, Murphy, Shelby, and Jamaica are typically extension credit (see resident credit and extension credit hours).

RESIDENT CREDIT HOUR - A credit value of a resident credit course. Resident credit courses are usually taught in on-campus classrooms. Courses taught by WCU faculty in UNC-Asheville classrooms and the Cherokee Center are also counted as resident credit courses. Resident credit hours generated, with the exception of "state-employee, tuition-free hours," are used to calculate full-time equivalents (FTE) for state funding purposes. (See student credit hour and extension credit hour.)

REVENUES - University revenues are defined as inflows of funds or other resources committed to the ongoing operation and mission of the University. For financial reporting purposes, revenues are reported according to the primary source of these resources.

State appropriations: Funds provided the University from the State of North Carolina's General Fund.

Auxiliary Enterprises: Funds generated from University operations organized to provide goods or services to students, faculty and staff. Examples are food services and the bookstore.

Tuition & fees: Charges for education determined by individual universities and the UNC system.

Gifts, contracts and grants: Funds provided from grant or contractual arrangements with various federal, state or local governments or private agencies.

Other sources: This category includes all other sources of University funds not identified elsewhere.

SERVICE/MAINTENANCE EMPLOYEES - Persons whose assignments require limited degrees of previously acquired skills and knowledge; includes cafeteria and restaurant workers, custodial personnel, grounds keepers, construction laborers, security personnel, etc.

SKILLED CRAFTS EMPLOYEES - Persons whose assignments typically require special manual skills and a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved in the work; examples include mechanics and repairmen, electricians, skilled machinists, carpenters, etc.

STUDENT CREDIT HOUR - A unit by which an institution may measure its course work. The number of credit hours assigned to a course is usually defined by the number of hours per week in class. One credit hour is usually assigned to a class that meets 50 minutes a week over a period of a semester; in laboratory, field works, drawing, music, practical arts, physical education or similar types of instruction, one credit hour is assigned for a session that meets 2-4 hours a week for a semester.

STUDENT CREDIT HOURS - These are the hours generated by units such as departments and colleges and are determined by (1) multiplying the number of credit hours for a course by the number of students in that course, and (2) aggregating these numbers for all of the courses taught by that unit.

TECHNICAL AND PARAPROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES - Persons whose assignments require specialized knowledge or skills which may be acquired through experience or academic work such as is offered in many two-year technical institutes, community colleges, junior colleges, or through equivalent on-the-job training.

UPPER-LEVEL CREDIT - Credit hours generated in 300-499 numbered courses. Upper-level courses refer to junior and senior level courses.

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