Printing and Copying
Formerly Executive Memorandum 89-94
Initially approved October 15, 1989
Administering Office: Administration and Finance Office
It is in the University's interest to assure that commonly needed printing, photocopying,
and typesetting services are readily available to campus units and that cost-efficiency
is an integral consideration in the provision of these services.
This interest is benefited by having on campus a central Print Shop that is adequately
staffed and equipped to provide these services, particularly for large volume production,
and having decentralized copying capabilities in academic and administrative units,
particularly for low-volume production. Good management requires that these capabilities
be obtained with recognition of their full costs; that the University's expenditure
for them be sufficient, but not excessive; and that utilization be efficient and reasonably
Conditions deemed necessary to achieving these outcomes are these:
- All job printing within the capability of the University Print Shop will be referred
to that shop.
- All quick-copy services on the campus will be under management of the University Print
Shop, thereby eliminating on-campus competition for quick-copy revenue.
- Established criteria will determine when copy production is to be referred to the
Print Shop or may be run on photocopying machines in academic and administrative units.
- All of the University's offset printing equipment will be placed under management
of the Print Shop.
- Purchases of copiers, related sorting and collating equipment and desk-top publishing
systems will be justified by production requirements and cost-benefit analysis specific
to the acquiring unit.
- Quick-copy services will be made readily available either by establishment of satellite
copy centers under management of the Print Shop or, alternatively, by frequent pickup
and delivery service for work to be done in the Print Shop.
The following Policies are hereby promulgated to establish the aforementioned conditions.
I. QUICK-COPY SERVICE
1. All quick-copy service at Western Carolina University shall operate under management
of the University Print Shop which shall be a self-supporting auxiliary enterprise.
For this purpose, "quick-copy" service is defined as photocopying or offset printing
of 100 or more copies of a single page or, in the case of a multi-page document, a
combination of pages and copies-per-page that exceeds 300 copies. When less than 100
copies are needed, academic and administrative units may elect to use either their
own photocopying machines or the Print Shop's services. A quick-copy price schedule
will be sent to all University departments at the beginning of each fiscal year for
reference in determining the cost of quick-copy requirements.
2. Tests, examinations, and other confidential materials are exceptions and may be
copied in the manner deemed best by the custodian of the material. Either the Print
Shop or a school/department machine may be used, and no limit applied to the number
of copies run.
3. All off-set printing equipment on campus shall be placed under management of the
University Print Shop.
4. Other administrative and academic units of the University shall refrain from competing
with the University Print Shop for copy service revenue.
5. Academic and administrative units of the University may acquire photocopying machines
appropriate to their respective production requirements. The policies stated above
must be reflected in assessing those requirements.
Purchases by University operating units of high-volume copiers, related sorting and
collating equipment, and desk-top publishing systems must be further supported by
cost-benefit analysis that demonstrates acquisition by the individual unit to be more
cost-effective than reliance on Print Shop services, all elements of cost being considered.
Guidelines for preparing the cost-benefit analysis for acquisition of copy machines
may be secured from the Purchasing Office.
6. The Director of Auxiliary Services shall establish satellite copying centers at
convenient locations on campus, or, alternatively, shall provide a convenient pick-up
and delivery service for work to be performed at the central Print Shop.
II. PRINTING SERVICES
The University's printing work shall be performed by the on-campus Print Shop in all
instances where the work to be done is within the capabilities of the Print Shop and
can be performed in a timely manner. The Director of Public Information or his designee
and the Manager of the Print Shop shall jointly determine whether the work to be done
is within the capabilities of the Print Shop. Cost quotations for specific printing
jobs will be provided by the Print Shop Manager after review of written specifications
furnished by the requesting department. Work that is beyond the capabilities of the
Print Shop may be referred to off campus printers pursuant to procedures established
by the University Purchasing Office.
It is recognized that specification of four-color printing frequently is related to
institutional marketing objectives. It does not appear practical at this time for
the Print Shop to acquire the equipment needed to perform four-color work. Therefore,
a blanket exemption from the requirement of on-campus printing is allowed for four-color
III. TIMELY PERFORMANCE AND EXCEPTIONS FOR EMERGENCIES
Quick-copy service generally will be completed on the same day or next day following
receipt of camera-ready copy. Large volume runs--i.e., those in excess of 16,000 total
copies--may require additional time at the rate of one day for each additional 16,000
Printing service--off-set and letter press--generally will be performed in two to
ten working days following receipt of final copy, camera-ready art, and specified
paper stock. Key variables for each publication are number of pages, number of copies,
typesetting requirements, binding requirements, and photographic work.
Job completion within the time-limits specified above shall be deemed to satisfy the
Print Shop's obligation to perform copying and printing work in a timely manner. If
the Print Shop cannot perform within these limits--and delivery within these limits
is needed--the work may be referred to an off-campus shop subject to procedures established
by the University Purchasing Office.
The intent of the aforestated policy is not to be frustrated by unnecessary delay
in submitting work or unnecessarily short deadlines.
In emergency situations, work may be referred to an off-campus shop if the University
Print Shop is unable to meet the emergency time table. Again, such referrals must
follow procedures established by the University Purchasing Office. The presence of
emergency conditions must be validated by the appropriate vice chancellor, and the
circumstances that lead to an emergency time table shall not be willfully created.
These policies contemplate no change in the coin-operated copy service available to
students in Hunter Library and Hinds University Center. The machines and the revenue
therefrom shall remain under the management of the University Librarian and the Director
of the Hinds University Center respectively. To provide additional service, any satellite
copy centers established by the Print Shop will be equipped for autotron operation
by University personnel and coin operation by students.