NEW ECHOTA, Sept. 22, 1832
The President of the United States we understand has instructed Col. Montgomery to deposit the annuities due the Cherokee Nation, and now in his hands, in the branch bank of the United States at Nashville. It will be recollected by our readers, that during the administration of Secretary Eaton over the War Department, he instructed the agent to pay the annuities to the individuals of the Nation, and not to the Nation, and in no instance to depart from this rule. The Cherokees have with some exceptions refused to receive the money under that regulation, until two years annuity have become due, or $13,839 $3 1-8 is to be safely locked up in the vetoed bank. Will the government return back to the Cherokee Nation the lands ceded for this money?
We refer our readers to a paragraph in an article headed removal of the Indians, published in the Commercial Register of Mobile, in which he informs his readers that a large portion of the Cherokees have been happily settled north of Arkansas River, and those of them remaining within the limits of the States, it is presumed will be soon convinced that it is to their interest to join their brethren, to enjoy their own laws without the interference of State regulations! The portion of Cherokees settled on the Arkansas (which the Register represents to be large, and enjoying the rights of freemen out of the limits of States) are as yet comparatively small to those east of the Mississippi. The indefatigable efforts which have been made by the Government to induce the Cherokees to emigrate, comprising the principal part of twenty four years, have as yet but partially succeeded. The portion of Cherokees that remain in this Nation and opposed to a removal can safely be set down without the hazard of truth at three fourths more than the Cherokees of Arkansas.- The condition of the Cherokees are neither so agreeable as the register would seem to state, for the reason that President Jackson has already assumed the right of legislating for them. The treaty of 1828 by the government with the Cherokees, embraced a tract of country of which the poor sons of Tustunnaggree Tlucco had been located, the late delegation at Washington claimed of the President the right to this tract of country to the exclusion of the Creeks; the President told them the claim could not be admitted, that the line would be run by commissioners so as to sustain the Creeks in the occupancy of it. This circumstance was contained in a letter written by the delegation, to a gentleman in this place, expressive of the dissatisfaction of the delegation. Therefore we would state to the respectable register, that wisdom would be baffled, for an Indian of this Nation to look first to the west, proceeding the leap from state thraldom, and then leap into the same element without the prospect of relief. On what ground then can the register predict the enjoyment of the Cherokees to their own laws if they should remove to the Arkansas? The Cherokee Nation was out of the limits of the States until the State of Alabama and others run lines through it and passed laws over the Indians in opposition to the treaties with them-the existence of this Nation was secured to us by the strongest guaranty that the wisdom of their good Americans could invent-but all these compacts we presume is known to the Register to have been annulled by the President in conjunction with the States, and in our feeble opinion, to the loss of their public virtue. If the States which have arisen around as here, can run boundary lines through our Nation in opposition to treaties to define the extent of their limits, cannot new States which will doubtless arise on the Arkansas do the same? The removal of all the Indians west of the Mississippi can never regenerate the loss of that virtue consequent upon the violation of all the treaties with the Indians. In this unpleasant but certain prospects of the treatment of the Indians west of Mississippi, the Cherokees of this Nation are strongly disposed, of the lesser evil, to remain here, and look forward to see, the rise of a just ruler, that will fulfill in good faith all the treaties with us.
We are informed from a source that can be relied on as authentic, that Governor Carrol of Tennessee will attend at the Council that will convene at Red Clay on the second Monday of Oct. The object of his visit is not yet known, but it is not unlikely, that in conjunction with two other commissioners, a treaty with the Cherokees may be proposed. We are not a little suppressed at the object of his excellency, if we correctly anticipate it, when it is known at the late Council the propositions from the President to the Cherokees to enter into a treaty was met with the most unqualified refusal.
The letter of the acting Secretary of War will be found below; which we have translated for our Cherokee readers. If this communication had not accidently fallen into the hands of a respectable gentleman of this place, as it did and handed over to us, we should never have known of it; for we presume directed as it is, the agent on his reception of it, delivered it over to the first Indian that was willing to hear its contents.
August 24, 1832
FRIENDS AND BROTHERS.- I have received the letter of the 6th inst. signed by the members of the Council, communicating the decision of the Cherokees upon the propositions submitted to them by order of the President.
This letter has been forwarded to the Secretary of War at Detroit, from whom you will no doubt receive a reply.
Meantime permit me to express my regret, that propositions considered by your best friends here,those who have most constantly and earnestly advocated your interests, to be most liberal and advantageous, should and have met a different reception. I will yet hope that after calm deliberation, you may be sensible of the wisdom of the friends who advise you to accept them, and resolved to adopt the only course by which your permanent prosperity can be ensured.
Your Friend ' Brother,
Act. Sec. WAr.
To the CHEROKEES East of the Mississippi.
From the Mobile Commercial Register.
Removal of the Indians.-- This work, so necessary it the preservation of the Aborigines of the country, and commenced we believe, under the administration of Mr. Monroe, appears to be advancing to a successful termination. About 6,000 Choctaws were removed during the past fall and winter to the country allotted to them west of the Territory of Arkansas, between Red River and the Canadian forks of the Arkansas and about double that number will be removed during the present year. The Chickasaws having likewise disposed of their claim to lands in Alabama and Mississippi, are, we are told, anxious to be settled permanently in the country west of the Arkansas, and will probably be removed as soon as a suitable tract can be selected for them by the United States. The Creeks have also disposed of their possession s in Georgia and Alabama, and will, it si presumed, be removed in the course of the present and succeeding year. The country allotted to them, it will be recollected lies to the north of the Choctaw tract; and is also west of the Arkansas Territory.-
A large portion of the Cherokees have been for several years happily settled north of the Arkansas river, and those remaining within the limits of the States, will it is presumed soon be convinced that it is to their interest to join their brethren where they may enjoy their own laws and customs without interference from State regulations.
It will not be denied that the Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees, have made considerable advances in the civil arts, and with the continued and increased aids which the General Government will afford them in their new settlements, may we not in a few years expect to find them, and indeed the Indian tribes generally, enjoying a large portion of the blessings of civilized life, and living happily under the fostering care of the government unannoyed by State legislation.
The removal itself, properly conducted, will have a happy effect on such Indians as may have given themselves up to indolence and intemperance and their settlement in a new and delightful country, will under the care and advice of their better informed and more industrious brethren, most probably lead them to the adoption of agricultural pursuits and habits of industry.
This work has become a serious one with the Government, and we understand that the Secretary of War, with the approbation of the President,is about to adopt arrangements entirely new by which the officers of the army will control and superintend the removals. By this plan, the valuable services of our townsman Geo. S. Gaines, Esq which have been rendered much to his inconvenience will be dispensed with. It will be the policy of the Government ___ waiver, to select an able and discreet officer to supply his place. This will be no easy task. Mr. Gaines' long acquaintance with the Indians and the unlimited confidence they repose in him, enabled him to exercise a salutary influence over their conduct and opinions,and although the new arrangement will be a relief to him, we fear the loss of his counsels and personal attention may furnish cause of regret to the Government.