Wednesday July 9, 1828
Volume I, No. 20
Page 2, col. 1b-2a
The last, the preceding, and the present year have been remarkable for Indian treaties. To the number already existing is added another, with the Cherokees of the west of the Mississippi, lately made at Washington City. We have not seen the treaty. What we now publish is copied from a Georgia paper. We have not as yet understood who made the offer for an exchange of countries, the United States, or the Cherokee Delegation. If our brethren suppose that a removal further west will promote their interest and happiness, they certainly have a right to make the experiment. But to us, the case of these Cherokees afford one proof of the uselessness of this emigrating scheme. How many years have passed away when the territory of Arkansas was pointed to us as a suitable country for the Indians? a country abounding with game, and free from the intrusion of the whites. Our brethren had not been there long when they fell into difficulties-they were at war with the Osages - they complained of intrusions, and of the want of sufficient regard of the United States to their treaty stipulation.- What substantial reason is there that all these will not be renewed in their new country? We wish well to our brethren, and whatever their situation may be, we sincerely hope they will become completely civilized, of which we have no reason to question, if they are once permanently settled. In regard to the inducements for emigration held out, in the following article, to the Cherokees east of the Mississippi, particularly those within the chartered limits of Georgia, we have but one opinion, and that is, those inducements will not procure a single emigrant. They are insufficient we has almost said trifling, and do not well become the dignity of the United States. A blanket has lost its former value with us, so has the rifle and the kettle, and the mention of five pounds of tobacco in a treaty, where the interest of a nation of Indians is supposed to be concerned, looks to us, too much like jesting.
Art. 8. The Cherokee Nation, West of the Mississippi having by this agreement, freed themselves from the harrassing [sic] and ruinous effects consequent upon a location amidst a white population, and secured to themselves and their posterity, under the solemn sanction of the guarantee of the United States, as contained in this agreement, a large extent of unembarrassed country; and that their Brothers yet remaining in the States may be induced to join them and enjoy the repose and blessings of such a state in future, it is further; agreed on the part of the United States, that to each Head of a Cherokee family now residing within the Chartered limits of Georgia, or of either of the States, East of the Mississippi, who may desire to remove West, shall be given on enrolling himself for emigration, a good Rifle, a Blanket, and Kettle, and five pounds of Tobacco (and to each member of his family one Blanket,) also, a just compensation for the property he may abandon, to be assessed by persons to be appointed by the President of the United States. The cost of the emigration of all such shall also be borne by the United States, and good and suitable ways opened, and provisions procured for their comfort, accommodation, and support, by the way, and provisions for twelve months after their arrival at the Agency; and to each person, or head of a family, if he take along with him four persons, shall be paid immediately on his arriving at the Agency and reporting himself and his family; or followers, as emigrants and permanent settlers, in addition to the above, provided he and they shall have emigrated from within the Chartered limits of the State of Georgia, the sum of Fifty Dollars, and this sum in proportion to any greater or less number that may accompany him from within the aforesaid Chartered limits of the State of Georgia.
Proviso by the Senate
"Provided, nevertheless, that the said Convention shall not be so construed as to extend the Northern Boundary, of the `Perpetual Outlet West,' provided for and guaranteed in the second article of said Convention, North of the thirty-sixth degree of North latitude, or so as to interfere with the lands assigned, or to be assigned, West of the Mississippi River, to the Creek Indians who have emigrated or may emigrate from the State of Georgia and Alabama, under the provisions of any Treaty or Treaties heretofore concluded between the United States and the Creek tribe of Indians; and provided further, That nothing in the said Convention shall be construed to cede or assign to the Cherokees any lands heretofore ceded or assigned to any tribe or tribes of Indians, by any Treaty now existing and in force, with any such tribe or tribes."
In the above article, the new country, to which the Cherokees are to remove, is guarantied to them nearly in the same language as that used in the 7th article of the treaty of Holston, viz: "The United States solemnly Guarantie [sic] to the Cherokee Nation, all their lands not hereby ceded."- This, the United States Commissioners, D. G. Campbell and J. Merriwether, in their correspondence with the General Council of this Nation, published in our late numbers, took the occasion to say, amounted to nothing. What is then the security in this new, and permanent home of our brethren?