The Boyer Model
The Boyer Model

In the 1990 publication "Scholarship Reconsidered," Ernest Boyer introduced an academic model advocating four types of scholarship. According to Boyer traditional research, or the scholarship of discovery, had been the center of academic life and crucial to an institution's advancement. Building on that foundation, he also included the scholarship of integration, i.e. making connections within and across disciplines and performing research amid a larger intellectual pattern. Engaging in research that works to alleviate social problems became a part of the scholarship of application, and systematic reflection on teaching and learning formed the heart of the scholarship of teaching and learning (often abbreviated SoTL). Boyer argued for the academy to broaden its definition of scholarship in order to reward faculty for the work they do outside of the narrower conventional boundaries of research, teaching, and service.



Ernest Boyer, Scholarship Reconsidered (publisher's website)

O'Meara, Rice, and Edgerton, Faculty Priorities Reconsidered: Rewarding Multiple Forms of Scholarship (publisher's website)



The Boyer Center (at Messiah College)

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching


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