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Turabian: Formatting Footnotes/Endnotes and Bibliographies


To format a footnote or an endnote

Indicate research material in the text of your paper using MS Word's Insert/Reference/Footnote function to place a superscript number outside the final period of a summary or paraphrase. For direct quotations, place the superscript number outside the final quotation marks.

Beginning with the 7th edition Turabian manual, the number that precedes the footnote/endnote is NOT formatted in superscript and is followed by a period. After you have inserted the superscript number in your text, delete Word's default superscript number in the corresponding footnote/endnote box, and type in the appropriate number followed by a period.

The first line of a footnote/endnote is indented five spaces, or one tab space, and each subsequent line is flush with the left-hand margin.

The name of the author is not reversed and is separated from the title of the author's text by a comma rather than period. There is no punctuation between the title and the publishing information.

Footnote/endnote numbers are sequential throughout the paper.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page.

Endnotes appear on a page entitled Endnotes at the end of the paper before the Bibliography.


To format bibliographic entries

At the top of your bibliography page, center the word Bibliography, and then double-space to start your first entry.

Each entry is listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

The first time of each entry is flush with the left-hand margin, and each subsequent line is indented 1/2 inch.

Use MS Word's Format Paragraph function to select hanging indentation.

Different elements of an entry are separated by periods, followed by one pace.

Single-space entries, but double-space between entries.


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